Kazakhstan is facing great challenges. Internal and external challenges. But, as often quoted, a challenge is also an opportunity, a chance for new ways and improvements.
External challenges have been triggered by the Russian war in Ukraine. Kazakhstan has good relations to both countries. Has or had? Supporting one side means to turn against the other. In a country with multivectoral foreign politics it will be a difficult situation, in addition to the fact, that very many families in Kazakhstan have relatives in Ukraine AND in Russia.
Turning the challenge into an opportunity, Kazakhstan will hold a referendum on June 5 on a number of issues to reform the country, turning to more participation, democratization and de-centralization, and shifting power from the President to the Parliament.
In foreign politics, it will be a challenge how to provide oil for EU, which until now is mostly reaching its destination via Russia and Ukraine. Kazakhstan is the fourth larges oil supplier to the EU.
How will the EU deal with it?